Russia/Ukraine: Balta (Odessa region) Jewish community 3 Kopek bronze token, circa. 1880s; 1.45g, 18mm. Obv.: number "3"; Ukrainian leg. "контора коробочнаго сбора балта" ['office boxed collection of Balta']. Rev.: swan image. Jewish tokens from the Odessa region all bear image of swan & identified by phrase 'office box collection', a ref. to community levy imposed by the 'Kahal'. The Russian govt. required Kahal-im to collect state taxes from their communities but permitted them to raise funds for community needs, these called "packaged collections" ('office box collections'). The levies were legalized in 1844.
Ukraine: Shepetivka/ Shepetovka 1 Karbovanets Jewish community bronze token, c.1900; 2.7cm, 7.85g. Obv.: "1 Karb[ovanets]"; Ukr. leg. "Jewish Community Council of Shepetivka" ("ЕВРЕЙЬ ГРОМАД РАДА ШЕПЕТІВЬБКА"). Rev.: cluster of grapes; Heb. leg. "Ha Tzibur Ha Ivri Shel ha Iriya" ("The Hebrew Populace of the City Hall"; 'Iriya' may be mistake for 'Ayara' - 'small town'; many sp. mistakes). A Hassidic center in 18-19th Cent.; Jew. pop. almost 50% of total by 1900: 7 Synagogues, active Jewish commercial activity & Zionist activity. Modern cursive Hebrew suggests token dates to 1900-1921 (Soviet rule). In EF-AU w/orig. luster.
Austria/Hungary: Mattersdorf (Mattersburg) Jewish community copper token, c. late 18th-early 19th Cent.; not maker-marked; 26.5mm, 4.75g. Same design on both sides: wheat(?) branch interlocked with olive/berry branch. Obv.: initials "IGM" ('Israelitische Gemeinde Matzelsdorf'). Rev.: Hebrew initials Kuf-Mem-Daled ("KMD"). All sources (quoting Neumann) call this a "slaughter token" & say Heb. letters mean IGM. But Heb. acronyms w/apostrophes in between work differently: letters may be a number (144) refering to year made 5544 = 1783-84. Also likely a reference to Psalm (ex Psalms / Tehilim) קמד / 144 which was written by King David when he defeated all his enemies (לדויד: ברוך יהוה, צורי המלמד ידיי לקרב אצבעותיי למלחמה), and dedicated his successes to G-d and not to himself; this psalm well known as opening the Psalm 145 "Ashrey Yoshvey Beitecha" with its ending line "אשרי העם, שככה לו: אשרי העם, שיהוה אלוהיו". No indications this is a slaughter token, maybe community tax/charity. Top left rev. edge surface missing (die flaw?). Locale originally known as Nagymarton & together w/six other area Jewish communities it formed the 'Siebengemeinden', 7 Orthodox communities who ran their own affairs & achieved a degree of autonomy unparalleled anywhere in central & western Europe.